Music and Drugs


Part 1

Nothing separates the generations more than music. By the time a child is eight or nine, he has developed a passion for his own music that is even stronger than his passions for procrastination and weird clothes.
 
Bill Cosby (b. 1937), U.S. comedian, actor. Fatherhood, ch. 10 (1986).
procrastinate verb - to put off doing something, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness.
weird adjective - (here) of a strikingly odd or unusual character; strange.


Ex.1. Cognates.
What words in L1 do these English ones remind? Write corresponding L1 words in the list:
interest  music  collaboration orchestras  interpretation  season to chart  classical  million copy  appeal  audience artist  condition  inspiration result  album  debut composer  to manage  director diverse  melody  guitar hero  confidence  pure indulgent  material  natural progression  to start  interpreting classics  normal  genre
Celtic  jazz  popular swing  interludes  collision vocal  style  magazine sceptical  chance  market really  extremely  area instrument  associated  pop

How to score
The maximum score for this quiz is 54 points. Score one point for every L1 word you have written.

What your score means?
Excellent  50 and more
Good  40 - 49
Fair 30 - 39
Inferior 0-29


Ex. 2. Can you complete the story
  _ was born in _.
  _ interest in _ has led to _ with many _.
  _ 's search for fresh _ has resulted in _.
  _ seemed to be a _. "It seems totally normal to me when _."
  "I think _ will have to find _," _ says, "but no-one has ever really managed to _." _, however, points to the _. Nevertheless, _ adds, " This is _, it will _ to _ who loves _."


1. Expansion
Read the text and write a title for it


Text 1


Nigel Kennedy was born in Brighton, England, and now lives in Malvern.

His interest in music as a whole has led to collaborations with many musicians and most of the major orchestras in the USA as well as Europe.

His peerless interpretation of Vivaldi's Four Seasons went to No. 3 in the UK pop charts and also charted in many other countries. It entered the UK classical chart directly at No. 1 and was still there as year later. This, and sales of one million copies, have earned it a place in the Guinness Book of Records.

Nigel Kennedy is best known for his achievement of taking classical music, and the violin in particular, to a greater audience than any other artist.

Releases from Kennedy dried up in 1992, a hiatus partly enforced by a painful neck condition requiring surgery but, more importantly, because he felt he had gone as far as he could go with classical music at the time.

Kennedy's search for fresh inspiration has resulted in his first album for four years and his debut as a composer. "It's like a debut in a way for Nigel," says Clive Black, managing director of EMI UK. "But it's a very accomplished one, quite diverse and with haunting melodies."

The album, Kafka, owes its genesis to Kennedy's infatuation with Jimi Hendrix (his attempt to release covers of Hendrix tracks was shelved because of disagreements with the guitar hero's estate) and his collaborations with artists such as Robert Plant and Kate Bush. "They certainly gave me confidence. I knew if musicians like that approved of what I was doing, I wasn't being purely self-indulgent," he says.

Writing and recording his own material seemed to be a natural progression of his development as an artist. "All the people I admire have started off interpreting music before going on to write their own. Miles Davis began with the classics, Beethoven began with Mozart. It seems totally normal to me when you look at the contemporary music world."

Kafka is a genre-defying work that broadly covers Celtic, classical, jazz and popular music. Its tracks swing from melodic interludes like the opener Autumn Regrets to the superb collision of vocal styles on From Adam To Eve.

Diverse and accomplished it may be but James Jolly, editor of Gramophone magazine, is sceptical about its chances of tapping into the classical market. "I think he will have to find a completely new market," he says, "but no-one has ever really managed to cross so extremely from one area to another. Nor is the violin an instrument readily associated with pop music." Black, however, points to the world market where Kennedy possesses great standing, particularly in Europe and South East Asia. Nevertheless, he adds, "We're taking a long-term view of this album and of Nigel as an artist in his new direction. This is an album for music lovers, it will appeal to anyone who loves music."
(488 words)


Notes


Jimi Hendrix
Originally James Marshall Hendrix. 1942-1970. American musician whose innovative electric guitar playing greatly influenced the development of rock music.
Miles Davis
African-American musician; 1926-91. b. Alton, Ill. He worked with Charlie PARKER in the 1940s, was a catalyst of "cool" jazz around 1950, led influential small bands through the 1960s, and produced jazz-rock and jazz-funk blends in the late 1960s and the 1970s. He was famous for his warm, often muted trumpet style.


2. Reduction
Nigel Kennedy is at a hospital. Write a short article covering this event
Write a summary of the text 1.


3. Media transfer
Rewrite direct speech as reported speech.


4. Matching
Match words with their definitions:
1. to accomplish
2. to appeal
3. to admire
4. to interpret
5. to chart
6. to earn

7. To gain especially for the performance of service, labor, or work; to acquire or deserve as a result of effort or action
8. To explain the meaning of; to conceive the significance of; construe; to present or conceptualize the meaning of by means of art or criticism; to translate orally.
9. To make a listing of best-selling recorded music or other items.
10. To be attractive or interesting
11. To succeed in doing; to reach the end of; complete.
12. To regard with pleasure, wonder, and approval; to have a high opinion of; esteem or respect.


5. Selecting/Ranking
Select and list all the words in the text connected with music
Name all people mentioned in the article with their occupations.


6. Comparison/Contrast
With whom Nigel Kennedy compares himself.


7. Reconstruction
Insert appropriate words into gapped text:

Nigel Kennedy _ in Brighton, England, and now _ in Malvern.

His interest in _ as a whole has led to _ with many _ and most of the major _ in the USA as well as Europe.

Nigel Kennedy is best known for his _ of taking classical _, and the _ in particular, to a greater audience than any other _.

 Releases from Kennedy _ in 1992, a hiatus partly enforced by a painful _ condition requiring _ but, more importantly, because he felt he had gone as far as he could go with _ music at the time.

Writing and _ his own _ seemed to be a natural progression of his development as an _. "All the people I _ have started off _ music before going on to write their own."


8. Reformulation
Rewrite the text using adapting it (using more common words)


9. Interpretation
Does these texts recall anything from your experience?
Formulate questions on the text beginning with What? Who? Where? When? Why? How?...


10. Creating text
You are a reporter who is interviewing people to learn their impressions of the article.
Types of people: lecturer, teenager, retired women,
Retell the story you've heard somewhere (press-conference, a party)


11. Analyses
Can you describe some modern music styles, without English words
Notice the expression "fresh inspiration". What other things can we fresh? Make a list.
Chose from the text sentences with verbs in Past Simple Present Perfect. Why such tenses are used.


12. Project work
Are there many common words in English and Russian connected with music (classics, jazz, rock, etc.) Can you prove your opinion.


Part 2


What L1 words do these English ones remind:
to attack, to benefit, music experiment, successful, to lecture, psychiatry, university, millionaire, minister, heroin, cocaine, expanse, major, to declare, creativity


Explain the following sentences:
Young people see that for the simplistic rubbish it is.
It is associated with success and glamour.
They should think about the subject for themselves.


Explain the following and expressions and produce the sentences with them:
  a lot of ...
  they are led to believe that experimenting with ...
  to be in touch with ...
  at some point Iím going ...
  to be linked with ...
  spreading messages


What kind of a story you can produce using these words and expressions:
1.  experiment, successful, to lecture , psychiatry, at London University
2. public health officials, Medical experts, Health Minister,
3. heroin, cocaine, drugs, taking hard drugs, heavier drugs, donít do drugs, died
from drug abuse, addictive behavior, expanse of consciousness, anti-drugs crusade
4. music, violinist, classical musician, the great musicians I admire,

cat - Slang. a. A person, especially a man. b. A player or devotee of jazz music.
none of those cats, album of cover versions of Hendrix songs


Text 2. Fury greets Kennedyís intention to try hard drugs


Punk violinist Nigel Kennedy has sparkled a major row after declaring it was his responsibility as a musician to experiment with hard drugs.

The 35-year-old millionaire who has become Britainís most successful classical musician said he would consider taking hard drugs to find out more about music.
Kennedy, who lives in Malvern, Worcs, said: "At some point Iím going to have to consider my responsibility as a musician to get into heavier drugs simply to find out more about music. I think a lot of the great musicians I admire have benefited from being in touch with heavy drugs.

"The Beatles, Hendrix, Coltrane, Parker, none of those cats would have had that expanse of consciousness in their music without drugs". He attacked public health officials for spreading "simplistic" anti-drug messages and said youngsters should think about the subject for themselves.

"People tell so many lies about drugs. It is just too condescending to say: Donít do drugs, they kill you". I think young people see that for the simplistic rubbish it is," he said.

But Health Minister Mr Tim Yeo attacked Kennedy for undermining the Governmentís anti-drugs crusade.

Mr.Yeo said: "His statement is deplorable. Itís giving exactly the wrong message to young people if they are led to believe that experimenting with hard drugs is associated with success and glamour. It is a very stupid thing to say."

Medical experts also attacked Kennedyís view that drugs were linked to creativity.

Prof Hamid Ghodse, who lectures in psychiatry and addictive behavior at London University said: "Drugs, particularly hard drugs such as heroin and cocaine, impair performance. Addicts soon find they cannot play without them."
"Jimi Hendrix and Charlie Parker died from drug abuse."
Kennedy is working on an album of cover versions of Hendrix songs.

The Birmingham Post 5 April 1993
(294 words)


Notes:


The Beatles
A former British pop group comprising John Lennon, Ringo Starr, Paul McCartney, and George Harrison. The group first gained international fame in 1962 and disbanded in 1970.
Charlie Parker
Known as "Bird." 1920-1955
American musician and composer. A leader of the bop movement in jazz, Parker is best remembered for his smooth, moody improvisations.
John Coltrane,
1926-67, African-American musician; b. Hamlet, N.C. Rising to prominence with the Miles Davis quintet in the mid-1950s, he was until his death the dominant tenor and soprano saxophonist of the jazz avant-garde.


1. Expansion
  Write a letter of The Birmingham Post reader who has read the article.

2. Reduction
  Write a summary of the text.

3. Media transfer
  Rewrite Kennedy words as reported speech.

4. Matching
  Match words with their definitions:
    1. impair; 2. intention; 3. fury; 4. responsibility; 5. row; 6. simplism;
    7. spark; 8. statement; 9. to consider; 10. to sparkle; 11. undermining;
    12. youngster; 13. to condescend; 14. deplorable; 15. to greet.

1. A course of action that one intends to follow.
2. A young person; a child or youth.
3. Able to make moral or rational decisions on one's own and therefore answerable for one's behavior.
4. An very bright particle, especially one thrown off from a burning substance, resulting from friction, or remaining in an otherwise extinguished fire; an ember.
5. Quarrel; an uproar; a great noise
6. Something stated; a declaration.
7. The state, quality, or fact of being responsible
8. The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
9. To cause to diminish, as in strength, value, or quality.
10. To descend to the level of one considered inferior; lower oneself; to deal with people in a patronizingly superior manner.
11. To give off sparks, to give off or reflect flashes of light; glitter
12. To salute or welcome in a friendly and respectful way with speech or writing, as upon meeting or in opening a letter.
13. To think carefully about.
14. To weaken, injure, or impair.
15. Violent anger; rage
16. Worthy of severe condemnation or reproach; lamentable; woeful


5. Selecting/Ranking
Select and list all the words in the text connected with a)drugs; b)music
 Name all people mentioned in the article with their jobs.


Text 3. Stupid musician


Nigel Kennedy loves to court controversy, but his latest remarks that taking hard drugs will enhance his performance is dangerously irresponsible.
What does Kennedy does with his own life is up to him, but he must realise that he has a responsibility to thousands of young and adoring fans. To associate hard drugs with success is extremely stupid and Kennedy should look no further than the man he idolises as a musician to see what hard drugs can do. Rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix died of heroine overdose in 1979 at the age of 38 - only three years older than Kennedy is today
The Birmingham Post 5 April 1993
 (103 words)


6. Comparison/Contrast
Identify words/expressions common to both texts (attitudes, quality, professionalisms), make a table of verbs adjectives, descriptive
Identify words/expressions in text 1 which are paraphrased in the text 2.
Which of the texts was written first?


7. Reconstruction
Insert appropriate words into gapped text:

  Nigel Kennedy has _ a major row after declaring it was responsibility as a musician to experiment with _ _.
   The 35-year-old millionaire said he would _ taking hard drugs to find out more about music.
   "People _ so many _ about drugs. Donít do drugs, they kill you". I think _ people see that it is _," he said.
   But _ Minister Mr Tim Yeo _ Kennedy: "His statement is _. Itís giving exactly the wrong _ to young people if they are led to _ that experimenting with _ is associated with _ and _. It is a very _ thing to say."


8. Reformulation
Rewrite the text using adapting it (using more common words)


9. Interpretation
Does these texts recall anything from your experience?
Formulate questions on the text beginning with What? Who? Where? When? Why? How?...


10. Creating text
You are a reporter who is interviewing people to learn their impressions of the article.
Write an essay based on this quotation about creativity:
 
Is not the tremendous strength in men of the impulse to creative work in every field precisely due to their feeling of playing a relatively small part in the creation of living beings, which constantly impels them to an overcompensation in achievement?

Karen Horney
(1885-1952), U.S. psychiatrist. Feminine Psychology, "The Flight from Womanhood" (1926).


11. Analyses
Notice the expression "spreading messages". What other things can we spread? Make a list.


12. Project work
Design a questionnaire on the problem for others to complete
You are a columnist, and you've been asked to write on the problem for your newspaper.
You've been asked to prepare a presentation for student's jazz club
Collect quotations, etc. for an album, or a display for pictures, a poster.
You are a psychotherapist working with a group of former drug addicts. A member of the group has brought a copy of newspaper with the article about Nigel Kennedy's idea.
Your reaction?


Part 3


Pre-text exercises.
Do you know Billie Holiday, Kurt Cobain, Nirvana:

Rock singer-songwriter-guitarist Kurt Cobain of the Seattle group Nirvana recovers from a drug-induced coma in March but is found dead April 8 at age 27, having killed himself with a shotgun.
 

If you think you need stuff to play music or sing, youíre crazy. It can fix you so you canít play nothing or sing nothing.

Billie Holiday
(1915-59), U.S. blues singer. Lady Sings the Blues, ch. 23 (1956; written with William Dufty; rev. 1975).

stuff - (here) Slang. A habit-forming drug, especially heroin.

Holiday, Billie,
1915-59, African-American singer; b. Baltimore as Eleanora Fagan. She began singing in 1930 and earned a supreme position among modern jazz singers with her emotional impact and highly personal approach to a song. Her life was complicated by the drug addiction that eventually destroyed her career and hastened her death.


Divide text into paragraphs.


Write out keywords and make summary of the text:

drug addiction and drug abuse, chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance to alter states of body or mind for other than medically warranted purposes. Among the drugs with potential for abuse are narcotics, including morphine, opium, heroin, and methadone; depressants such as alcohol, barbiturates, and sedatives; stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines; hallucinogenic drugs; and marijuana. Nicotine and caffeine can also be abused, and anabolic steroids and human growth hormone are often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking to increase muscle mass. An individual is said to be addicted if a physical dependence on a given drug develops and if withdrawal symptoms are experienced when the drug is discontinued or its dose decreased. True physical addiction is known to occur with the narcotics and depressants; psychological dependence, with or without physical symptoms, can develop with many other drugs, such as tranquilizers. The hallucinogens can also cause traumatic experiences and trigger psychotic reactions, including paranoia. Treatment for drug addiction includes methadone programs and participation in therapeutic communities (e.g., Synanon and Phoenix House) with other addicts who are giving up drugs. The question of what constitutes drug abuse depends on the cultural and social context. In some countries, narcotic use in the form of opium smoking is common and not considered a serious drug problem; in others, hashish or related compounds are widely used. In most industrialized nations, however, the use of many of these drugs is illegal and associated with criminal behavior.


Notes
stuff - (here) Slang. A habit-forming drug, especially heroin.
comic relief noun - A humorous or farcical interlude in a serious literary work, especially a tragedy, intended to relieve the dramatic tension or heighten the emotional impact by means of contrast.
interlude noun
1. An intervening episode, feature, or period of time: "Kerensky has a place in history, of a brief interlude between despotisms" (William Safire).
2. a. A short farcical entertainment performed between the acts of a medieval mystery or morality play. b. A 16th-century genre of comedy derived from this. c. An entertainment between the acts of a play.
3. Music. A short piece inserted between the parts of a longer composition.


Suggest a title for the text:

   Kurt Cobain Dead at Age 27 ĺ Kurt Cobain, the lead singer of the influential rock band Nirvana, was found dead in April of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. An electrician who had come to install a security system in Cobain's Seattle home discovered the singer's body in a greenhouse above the garage, Apr. 8. A 20-gauge shotgun and a note addressed to Cobain's wife, Courtney Love, and the couple's 19-month-old daughter, Frances Bean, was found near Cobain's body. The King County Medical Examiner's Office later reported that Cobain had died on Apr. 5. In an emotional taped message, Love read parts of Cobain's suicide note to the 5,000 grieving fans who had gathered, Apr. 10, outside the Seattle Center for a memorial service. Cobain had struggled with depression and drug addiction for years and had made a failed suicide attempt in early March while in Rome for a performance. The group's groundbreaking 1991 album Nevermind had thrust the band into the spotlight and sold more than 10 million copies. Cobain was said to be a founder of so-called grunge rock, a new musical genre that combined elements of punk, heavy metal, and contemporary alternative music.


greenhouse noun - 1. A structure, primarily of glass, in which temperature and humidity can be controlled for the cultivation or protection of plants.
self-inflicted adjective - Inflicted or imposed on oneself: died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.
wound noun
1. An injury, especially one in which the skin or other external surface is torn, pierced, cut, or otherwise broken.
2. An injury to the feelings.
gauge  the interior diameter of a shotgun barrel as determined by the number of lead balls of a size exactly fitting the barrel that are required to make one pound.


Poets
 
What poet would not grieve to see
His brother write as well as he?
But rather than they should excel,
Heíd wish his rivals all in Hell.

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745). Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift.


excel verb  to do or be better than; surpass.
rival noun  one who attempts to equal or surpass another, or who pursues the same object as another; a competitor.
groundbreaking adjective (here) - characterized by originality and innovation.
addiction noun
 1. The quality or condition of being addicted: had an addiction for fast cars.
 2. Compulsive physiological need for a habit-forming substance
addict
verb, transitive
 1. To devote or give (oneself) habitually or compulsively: She was addicted to rock music.
 2. To cause to become compulsively and physiologically dependent on a habit-forming substance: He was addicted to cocaine.
noun
 1. One who is addicted, as to narcotics.
 2. A devoted believer or follower.


Post-text exercises.


Match words and definitions:

1. gauge
2. interlude
3. addict
4. wound
5. rival

a) An injury to the feelings.
b) A devoted believer or follower.
c) An entertainment between the acts of a play.
d) One who attempts to equal or surpass another
e) The interior diameter of a shotgun barrel


Make a list of internationalisms in the text.


English
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